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Hydroelectric power is one of the ancient energy source providing clean energy without any pollution. Technological advancement and rapid development have enhanced the overall production of hydroelectricity. Almost in every corner of the world hydroelectric power plant is situated to generate electricity in which a turbine is a crucial element. The turbine is a mechanical device in which potential energy of water is converted into kinetic energy. Thus it helps to run turbine blades in which energy is changed to mechanical energy. The turbine rotor turns a generator rotor which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Rising demand for electricity around the world is expected to increase in the future and hydropower plant will play a key role in which hydro turbine gain significant market growth.
The market segmentation of hydro turbine is done on the basis of turbine type, head type, and by installation site. Pelton wheel and cross-flow turbine fall in impulse turbine whereas Kaplan, bulb and Francis turbine falls in reaction turbine category. In an impulse turbine, the potential energy of water is converted into kinetic energy in order to increase the pressure of water. Pelton wheel is used in high head application whereas cross flow turbine utilized in micro-hydro plant. Kaplan turbine works efficiently at the low head while Francis turbine is a combination of impulse and reaction turbine. According to technical parameters various turbines are selected.
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Hydroelectric power plant not only generates clean energy but also effectively manages flood control, irrigation, and water supply which expected to raise the demand of hydro turbine. Countries across the globe are adopting clean energy policy and environment security with rapid growth in renewable energy which driving the hydro turbine market.
The complexities involved in designing a turbine according to the requirement is restraining the growth of the hydro turbine. The hydroelectric power plant may alter the water temperature and the river’s flow which acts as a barrier to the growth of the hydro turbine market.
The hydro turbine companies are Gilbert Gilkes & Gordon, General Electric, Andritz AG, Toshiba Energy, Harbin Electric Corporation, Kirloskar Brothers Ltd., Siemens AG, Canyon Hydro, Cornell Pump Co., Voith Group, Canadian Hydro Components Ltd, and WWS Wasserkraft GmbH
By Turbine Type
· Impulse Turbine
Ø Pelton Wheel
Ø Cross Flow Turbine
· Reaction Turbine
Ø Kaplan Turbine
Ø Francis Turbine
Ø Bulb Turbine
By Head Type
· Low Head Turbine (Up to 30m)
· Medium Head Turbine (30 to 300m)
· High Head Turbine (Above 300m)
By Installation Site
· Small Hydro Power Plant (Up to 1 MW)
· Medium Hydro Power Plant (1 MW – 10 MW)
· Large Hydro Power Plants (Above 10MW)
· North America (USA and Canada)
· Europe (UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Russia and Rest of Europe)
· Asia Pacific (Japan, China, India, Australia, Southeast Asia and Rest of Asia Pacific)
· Latin America (Brazil, Mexico and Rest of Latin America)
· Middle East & Africa (South Africa, GCC and Rest of Middle East & Africa)
The global hydro turbine market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa. The United States and Canada represent the largest share of renewable energy in North America in which hydroelectric power contributes a major portion. Hydroelectric power plant accounts for approximately 7% of the total electricity generation. Advanced technology and increasing focus on renewable energy expected to increase the demand for hydro turbines. Hydropower is mature technology in northern Europe and the Alpine region. Countries like Norway, Sweden, France, Italy and Austria are leading in the European region in terms of generating hydroelectricity. The recent trend in pumped storage hydro small station and investment towards the refurbishment and modernisation of existing facilities to minimise environmental impacts. These factors are causing to grow the demand of hydro turbine in the market. China is shifting towards renewable energy to reduce its greenhouse emissions and position itself a major energy exporter, hydropower continues to be the foundation of its energy transition.
Many countries in the Asia Pacific region are concentrating on boosting hydroelectric power capacity to reduce the country’s dependence on imported diesel fuel. Overall market potential in the Asia Pacific seems to be complementary for the development of a hydro turbine. Despite the natural resources, access to electricity in Africa is limited and uneven. African government is increasingly turning to renewable energy to spur development and livelihoods. Hydropower presents an opportunity for economic development and the achievement of sustainable development growth. Many countries such as Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, South Africa, Sudan, and Nigeria are doing great in developing hydroelectric power which is expected to increase the growth of the hydro turbine in MEA.
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