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Transportation of the extracted hydrocarbons to the destined location should be carried out without any spills and should be economical .Offshore pipelines are best solution for transportation of hydrocarbons from one place to another. Offshore pipelines are preferred over ships as the risks of spillage is less and offshore pipeline is unaffected by tides, cyclones etc.
It also acts as the best, safe and the most economical way of transportation. The pipelines laid once can be used for years thereafter. Laying offshore pipelines also omits the problem faced for storage of extracted deposits. Study of pipeline length, type of sea bed, obstacles that could be faced after installation, etc. have to be done before pipeline is laid in order to reduce potential hazard, operation & maintenance cost.
On the basis of the Installation techniques, offshore pipelines can be segmented into S lay, J lay, and Tow In. In S lay technique, the pipe curves two times which gives it a S-shape before being laid down on the sea bed. The J lay installation puts less stress on pipe by only a single curve at the touchdown point on the sea bed. On the basis of the line type, offshore pipeline can be segmented into export line, transport line, and others. Transportation lines are suitable for long distance and its large diameter pipes used for moving products between countries, and continents.
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On the basis of product, offshore pipeline market can se segmented in natural gas, crude oil and refined products. On the basis of diameter, offshore pipeline can be segmented into below 24 inch and above 24 inch pipe. Depending upon the diameter of the pipe, pressure and flow of hydrocarbons is controlled. On the basis of the water depth, the market can be segmented into shallow water, and deep water. In shallow water, Tow-In technique is preffered because of the advantage of assembling pipe onshore and use of small vessels for carrying pipe strings to installation sites. In Deep water, S-lay and J-lay techniques are widely used as they provide high pipe laying rate with wide range of pipeline diameter.
The major market driver for the global offshore pipeline market is the increasing demand of crude oil, natural gas and refined products by the high energy consuming countries. As transportation through pipelines is efficient as compared to other means of transport, the market for offshore pipelines will rise to fulfil the increasing demands.
High initial cost of installation of the offshore pipeline and the difficulties faced in inspection and maintenance of the installed offshore pipelines acts as a key market restraint for the global offshore pipeline market.
Some of the notable companies in the offshore pipelines are Technip, Saipem, Subsea 7, Petrofac, Allseas, National petroleum construction company, Mc Dermott international, Penspen, Senaat, Tmk Group, United states steel corporation, Jesco, Sapura, Wood group, Furgo, Atteris, and Tenaric.
By Installation Technique
By Line Type
By Product Type
By Depth of Operation
The global offshore market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa. USA has the maximum length of offshore pipelines for oil and gas installed in the world. Europe also has a good established network of offshore pipelines with Russia, United Kingdom, Germany is at the top in terms of length of pipeline installed. Brazil has a good offshore pipeline network in the Latin America. Southeast Asia has a huge potential for offshore pipeline network with hydrocarbon rich countries in the southeast. In Asia pacific the growing demand for natural gas and refined products is mainly coming from countries like China and India. The growing demand has opened the gates for immense potential in offshore oil and gas pipelines.