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The global gasoline direct injection market size was valued at USD 9.10 billion in 2021 and is projected to grow from USD 9.98 billion in 2022 to USD 19.86 billion by 2029, exhibiting a CAGR of 10.3% during the forecast period. Based on our analysis, the global market exhibited a decline of -6.5% in 2020 as compared to 2019. The global COVID-19 pandemic has been unprecedented and staggering, with gasoline direct injection experiencing lower-than-anticipated demand across all regions compared to pre-pandemic levels.
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is commonly known as petrol direct injection, a mixture-forming mechanism for gasoline-powered internal combustion engines in which fuel is directly pumped into the combustion chamber of a vehicle. The GDI system is far more precise than older fuel-injection systems or carburetors as it improves fuel efficiency and produces a high power output. Furthermore, emissions levels may be managed more accurately with GDI technology. A typical gasoline fuel injector system consists of fuel pumps, fuel injectors, Electronic Control Units (ECU), fuel rail, and others. In this system, fuel pumps pressurize the gasoline fuel before being injected with the help of a fuel injector directly into each cylinder's combustion chamber through a standard rail fuel line. In addition, the ECU adjusts the necessary air-fuel mixture, ignition timing, and exhaust-gas treatment.
Supply Chain Disruptions and Closure of Manufacturing Units Slowed Down Growth amid the Pandemic
In 2020, due to the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic and unprecedented turmoil in the global energy market, the world economy was severely impacted by a significant drop in mobility, closure of industries, reduced road transport, and others. Besides, the travel rule and lockdown regulations have also resulted in the unavailability of skilled labor, causing disruption in the manufacturing sector.
The COVID-19 pandemic has set a drawback for automotive component manufacturers across the globe owing to supply chain disruption and increasing demand for raw materials, such as steel spools, powertrain components, among others, which halted component requirement across the automotive sector. For example, two auto powerhouses, Toyota Motors and Hyundai Motor, have temporarily shut down their automobile production at the national car site due to the outbreak of coronavirus in February.
Furthermore, the impact of COVID-19 has also resulted in lower demand for fuel, which has significantly caused fluctuation in fuel prices across many regions causing the decline in sales & use of gasoline-powered vehicles.
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Advancement of GDI Technology with Various Fuel Sources to Spur Market Opportunities
As per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, emissions from transportation, including emissions from passenger cars and light-duty vehicles, account for around 36% of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion and 28% of total greenhouse gas emissions in major countries such as the U.S. This has brought the focus of automotive manufacturers to upgrade their powertrain solutions with advanced solutions to reduce the impact of carbon emissions through automobiles. For instance, partial electrification of the vehicle powertrain by deploying GDI engines and hybrid-electric technology along with utilizing e-compressors and e-turbochargers could bring down vehicle emissions and take the efficiency up a few notches by approximately 30%.
The introduction of technologies equipped with better eco-system features could provide enormous opportunities to improve the market landscape. In June 2021, Colorado State University led a project to develop advanced combustion strategies for direct injection LPG engines to achieve engine efficiency. Through the project, the organizations have successfully utilized GDI system components for compatibility and availability in LPG fuel injection systems, resulting in method generation for adapting off-the-shelf GDI injectors for LPG operation engines.
Government Regulations for Automotive Emission Reduction to Drive Market Growth
Gasoline direct injection is a type of fuel injection that delivers highly pressurized fuel directly into engine cylinders. Accordingly, new regulations have been introduced to limit particulate emissions from GDI engines. These regulations restrict vehicle emissions, balance vehicle performance, and fuel economy, which prompted automakers to develop innovative operational engine architectures.
In India, for example, the central government has ordered that from April 1, 2020, vehicle manufacturers will only have to manufacture, sell, and register BS-VI (Bharat Level 6) vehicles. The BS-VI proposal introduces PM and PN emission limits for light commercial petrol vehicles, although these standards only apply to vehicles equipped with direct injection engines.
In addition, automakers are also working on these new standards to produce vehicles with improved fuel efficiency and performance. For example, Maruti Suzuki India Limited (MSIL) intends to offer a gasoline direct injection variant to diesel-powered vehicles to meet BS-VI emission standards, as the GDI technology despite being gasoline-powered, will be able to produce more power without compromising on fuel efficiency. Therefore, introducing strict regulations related to emissions is one of the factors expected to contribute to the gasoline direct injection market growth.
Increasing Demand for Fuel Efficiency and Improved Operational Engine Performance to Drive Market Growth
Due to rising concerns on deteriorating ambient air quality, specific measures are taken globally to adopt and enforce tighter vehicular emission regulations to minimize tailpipe unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). Regions with advanced technologies started focusing on limiting the levels of pollutants to reduce the amount of carbon emissions into the atmosphere.
GDI engines can provide an optimum combination of fuel efficiency and high performance to control and optimize vehicle performance at an appropriate cost. A wide range of semiconductor solutions is specifically designed to comply with emissions norms and to provide greater fuel efficiency.
One recent development in the context occurred in May 2021, when STMicroelectronics enabled electronic control of the next generation of gasoline direct injection engines. The company has found that the injection voltage signal contains clear information about the actual quantity of fuel delivered. Further, it becomes clear that processing the injector voltage signal allows real-time calculation of the actual amount of fuel injected during the operation. This control strategy enables GDI for very short injections, when ballistic behavior occurs, enabling the use of multiple injection strategies in GDI engines.
Rising Electric Vehicle Demand to Hamper Market Growth
Increasing adoption of electric powered vehicles has resulted in sales decline of internal combustion engine vehicles as the rise in electric vehicles leads to a sign that a shift of power from oil is reducing. This has resulted in less production of IC engines components such as injectors, fuel rails, and others.
Furthermore, with recent advancements in clean energy for automobiles, more and more countries are increasing the adoption of this technology resulting in lower sales and production of a traditional internal combustion engine.
For instance, in 2021, 12.5% of new light-duty vehicle registrations were Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in California. In the European Union, hybrid electric vehicles accounted for 19.6% of all new passenger cars registered in 2021, compared to 11.9% in 2020, and sales of petrol vehicles fell by almost 33.5%, with nearly all EU markets recording declines.
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Fuel Pumps Segment to Hold Dominant Market Share Due to Maximum Usage for Fuel Supply
By vehicle, the market is divided into fuel pumps, fuel injectors, Engine Control Unit (ECU), fuel rail, and others. The GDI system comprises various components crucial for its efficient performance.
Gasoline direct injection generally includes two fuel pumps, a tank pump responsible for pumping enough fuel to the engine and a high-pressure fuel pump responsible for generating enough pressure.
The pumps play a crucial role in supplying precise amounts of fuel directly to the combustion chamber, reducing inefficiencies and increasing power, due to which it holds a dominant gasoline direct injection market share. In parallel to fuel supply, fuel injectors are used to spray gasoline directly into the combustion chamber and mix with air chargers, resulting in higher engine compression and, in turn, increased efficiency, which helps reduce fuel consumption and increase torque. Based on this factor, the fuel injector segment is likely to experience significant demand during the forecast period.
The Engine Control Unit (ECU) plays a crucial role in the GDI system. The component identifies and tells the injectors when to spray fuel. With a growing shift toward electrification, various automotive manufacturers are increasing the adoption of ECU units in their powertrain technology; hence, the ECU is likely to experience the highest growth during the forecast timeframe.
Passenger Vehicle Segment to Hold Dominant Market Share due to its High Production Rate with Gasoline Powered Engine
Based on vehicle, the market is segmented into passenger vehicle and light commercial vehicle. The global proportion of GDI engines’ air to fuel mixtures is expected to overtake Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines by 2020 due to the implementation of increasingly stringent fuel consumption regulations.
Passenger vehicles significantly adopt gasoline direct fuel injection technology as most of the passenger vehicles are powered by petrol/gasoline fuel. The demand for passenger cars is primarily driven by private transport majorly in developing countries majorly across China, India, and others. Thus, the rise of the global middle class consumer is likely to surge the demand for gasoline powered direct injection in passenger vehicles, which holds a dominant market share.
Light commercial vehicles, such as pick-up trucks and minivans, also possess the penetration of the GDI system, due to which it also holds a significant market share.
Asia Pacific Gasoline Direct Injection Market Size, 2021 (USD Billion)
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The global market analysis has been done across North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa. The Asia Pacific region will likely hold the dominant market share for gasoline direct injection systems during the forecast period, owing to increasing production and sales of passenger vehicles across the region. Moreover, auto manufacturers, such as Volkswagen, Tata Motors, and Suzuki, are experiencing high demand for passenger vehicles in emerging economic countries such as India and Indonesia. Furthermore, Asia Pacific is the home of leading automotive manufacturers, such as Tata Motors, Suzuki, Hyundai, and Toyota, which significantly impacts the demand for gasoline direct injection technology.
The North America region also holds a significant market share for the GDI system, owing to GDI technology penetration in light commercial vehicles and passenger vehicles.
Furthermore, in Europe, government regulations for lowering the carbon emission generated from vehicles are likely to propel the demand for GDI with various technological advancements. Subsequently, the UAE and Saudi Arabia still possess a high share of gasoline-powered vehicles, which is a significant factor in leading a favorable market landscape for gasoline direct injection.
Key Participants are Concentrating on Enhancing their Product Capacities to Create New Market Opportunities
The global gasoline direct injection market is highly fragmented, with many small players providing GDI to various auto manufacturers. Numerous players are actively operating across the globe to cater to the increasing demand for GDI from automobile manufacturers.
Major players, including Bosch, Denso, BorgWarner Inc, and Park-Ohio also operate in the market. Based on our analysis, OEMs constitute more than 50% of the market share and many regional and local players dominate the remaining market. Numerous other players operating in the industry are focused on delivering advanced GDI solutions with components upgraded to cater to the growing demand for providing efficient, low pollution engine powertrain.
An Infographic Representation of Gasoline Direct Injection Market
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The market research reports present a comprehensive industry assessment by offering valuable insights, facts, industry-related information, and historical data. Several methodologies and approaches are adopted to make meaningful assumptions and views to formulate the report. Furthermore, the report covers a detailed analysis of key market segments, including components, vehicle types, and regions, helping the readers get a comprehensive global gasoline direct injection industry overview.
Value (USD Billion)
By Component, Vehicle, and Region
Fortune Business Insights study shows that the global market was worth USD 9.10 billion in 2021.
The global market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 10.3% over the forecast period.
The market size of Asia Pacific stood at USD 4.23 billion in 2021.
Based on component, the fuel pumps segment holds the dominating share in the global market.
The global market size is expected to reach USD 19.86 billion by 2029.
The key market drivers are increasing government regulations to reduce carbon emissions and product enhancement to improve operational efficiency.
The top players in the market are Denso Corporation, Bosch, Marelli Holdings Co., Ltd., TI Fluid Systems, BorgWarner Inc., and Park-Ohio Holdings Corp.
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