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Battery research is advancing at a rapid pace and Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) is pioneering in the field of battery market across the world. Lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the greatest electrochemical potential and provide the largest specific energy per weight. It is a rechargeable battery in which lithium ion moves from a negative electrode to a positive electrode during discharge and vice-versa during recharge. The energy density of lithium-ion is typically twice that of the standard nickel-cadmium.
There is no scheduled cycling is required to prolong the battery life as the self-discharge is less than half compared to nickel-cadmium, making LIB for modern fuel gauge application. Rechargeable, LIB is primarily found where their high energy and power density as well as their superior cycling ability create value which is the most important criteria for electric and hybrid vehicles. They are also used as electrical energy storage technology of choice for large scale renewable energy farms in which smoothing function is required.
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The classification of Lithium-Ion Battery is based on the type, capacity, and application. Li-cobalt possesses high specific energy which makes it a popular choice for mobile phones, laptops, and digital cameras. The electric vehicle companies like Tesla used to prefer Lithium Titanate and Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide for its cars and it is also suitable for electric grid storage. Most of the electric gadgets such as mobile phones, power banks, cameras, etc. are equipped with power storage up to 10,000mAH whereas for the portable power storage system and automotive industry use storage capacity about 10,000mAH to 50,000mAH. In defence, submarines, mining, etc. where large scale energy output require with space constraint, LIB provide above 50,000mAH power capacity with relatively low space power backups.
The international community is approaching towards greener and pollution free mobility as the passenger and commercial electric vehicles changing trend for future transportation which pitching up the market growth. Europe has imposed strict regulation and norms on emission and implementing major projects for public electric mobility transportation. Lithium-ion battery provides high power and energy density with great flexibility and majorly find its application in aerospace, mining, defence, etc. for primary energy source and these sectors contribute large share in the market which makes LIB touch new heights in the market.
Lithium batteries are expensive to manufacture compared to conventional batteries and also it is susceptible to high temperature caused by overheating or overcharging which inhibit the growth of LIB market. The acceptability of any system depends upon its cost and as per the current scenario, LIB is highly expensive which inhibit its universal adoption.
The notable players in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing are Panasonic, Toshiba, LG Chemical, Tesla, A123 Systems, eCobalt Solutions, BYD, Contemporary Amperex Technology, Johnson Control, Samsung SDI Co., Ltd., Hitachi Global, and Shenzhen BAK Battery CO., Ltd.
Segmentation of the Lithium Ion Battery
· Lithium Cobalt Oxide
· Lithium Manganese Oxide
· Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide
· Lithium Iron Phosphate
· Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide
· Lithium Titanate
· Up to 10,0000mAH
· 10,000mAH to 50,000mAH
· Above 50,000 mAH
o Smartphone and Tablets
o Passenger Vehicle
o Commercial Vehicle
· Aerospace and Defence
o Construction equipment
· North America (USA and Canada)
· Europe (UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Russia and Rest of Europe)
· Asia Pacific (Japan, China, India, Australia, Southeast Asia and Rest of Asia Pacific)
· Latin America (Brazil, Mexico and Rest of Latin America)
· Middle East & Africa (South Africa, GCC and Rest of Middle East & Africa)
The lithium-ion battery market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. The adoption of electric vehicle (EV) in North America is seen a rising graph and Tesla is touching new heights in the EV market along with energy storage system that shown potential growth in the LIB market. The market for LIB in Europe has tremendous growth in the forthcoming year due to its shifting towards eco-friendly energy forms and various energy projects in the pipeline. Norway has acquired a large percentage of share in EV. The overall market for LIB in Europe seems to grow with a positive graph. Asia Pacific is the biggest market for LIB due to the enormous potential for development due to the rise in the use of electric gadgets which mainly include a smartphone, digital cameras, and other equipment. China is playing a key role in pitching up electric mobility which drives the global LIB market. Ongoing projected investment in renewable energy grid and infrastructure, expansion of microgrid in remote areas will create a suitable market for LIB in MEA.
Key Industry Developments
· In February 2019, Chinese conglomerate BYD investing 10 billion yuan for its Giga factory which will produce batteries for electric vehicle (EV) and have an annual output capacity of 20GWh.
· In January 2019, Toyota in association with Panasonic have signed an agreement to form new battery partnership which will produce prismatic lithium-ion batteries at Panasonic factories, one in Japan and other in China. The new venture is showing interest to develop next-generation solid-state lithium ion batteries.
· In November 2018, The partnership between Johnson Control Power Solutions and Toshiba Infrastructure Systems and Solution will provide a solution to meet automakers demand for low voltage lithium-ion solution for improved efficiency, low cost, and lesser complexity. The collaboration between Johnson Controls and Toshiba to develop and manufacture LIB.