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The global pneumonia testing market size was valued at USD 557.1 million in 2021. The market is projected to grow from USD 606.6 million in 2022 to USD 912.5 million by 2029, exhibiting a CAGR of 6.0% during the forecast period. The global COVID-19 pandemic has been unprecedented and staggering, with pneumonia testing experiencing lower-than-anticipated demand across all regions compared to pre-pandemic levels. Based on our analysis, the global market exhibited a slower growth of 1.5% in 2020 as compared to 2019.
Pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses. The infection causes the lungs' air sacs (alveoli) to inflame and fill up with fluid or pus. Some of the common symptoms of pneumonia are cough, fever, chills, and trouble breathing. The pneumonia testing protocol for this disease consists of a physical examination, medical history review, chest X-ray, blood culture, pulse oximetry, sputum culture, bronchoscopy, and fluid sample. The increase in the prevalence of pneumonia & early diagnosis due to rising concerns related to pneumonia has boosted the market's growth. The COVID-19 pandemic positively impacted the market as patients suffering from COVID-19 are highly susceptible to pneumonia, causing a sharp surge in the number of cases of viral pneumonia. Additionally, there was a decrease in the number of visits to healthcare professionals due to stringent lockdown measures, leading to a decline in community-acquired pneumonia cases.
Significant technological advancements, such as nucleic acid detection and a rise in initiatives by various government and non-government organizations, to boost the awareness and adoption of proper diagnosis for pneumonia are anticipated to favor the market growth. For instance, the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) reduces the disease burden and strengthens integrated health systems in low and middle-income countries. It has partnered with five countries, India, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Kenya since 2016 to increase access to diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia. Such initiatives are expected to drive the global pneumonia diagnostics market growth during the forecast period.
Sharp Surge in Viral Pneumonia Cases due to COVID-19 Boosted Testing and Exerted a Mixed Impact on the Market
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, there was a rise in the number of cases of viral pneumonia. There was a surge in the number of microbiological tests to check the co-infection in patients with COVID-19-induced pneumonia and accurately diagnose the type of pneumonia to decide the treatment flow and improve patient outcomes. For instance, according to an article published by the Hindu in November 2020, healthcare professionals estimated that nearly 60%-80% of recent pneumonia cases in India were attributed to COVID-19.
In contrast, there was a decline in the number of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. This decline was due to the stringent lockdown measures undertaken during the pandemic. Additionally, there was an apprehension amongst the general population to visit healthcare facilities. According to an article published by Science Direct in May 2022, due to COVID-19, there was 44–53% reduction in community-acquired pneumonia admissions amongst 82 hospitals in Japan. Hence, the COVID-19 pandemic had a dual impact on the global market.
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Growing Popularity and Adoption of Rapid and Point of Care Testing to Drive Growth Trajectory
Over the years, in terms of the pneumonia testing market trends, there has been a shifting preference and an increased demand for point-of-care diagnostic products. The rising prevalence of pneumonia leads to an intense need for rapid diagnostic devices. The key benefits, such as convenience, quicker diagnosis, and improved treatment outcomes, associated with the point-of-care testing segment boost its adoption among healthcare professionals and the patient population. According to an article published by NCBI in January 2020, rapid syndromic molecular tests for pneumonia offer better diagnostic accuracy than the current gold standard of culture. The research study compared the commercially available syndromic diagnostic testing platform, such as Filmarray Pneumonia panel and Unyvero, with a conventional diagnostic method and found the former two products more efficient in detecting pneumonia.
Furthermore, key market players are actively developing point-of-care molecular diagnostics for early detection of pneumonia to tackle the rising burden of the disease. For instance, in March 2020, SSI Diagnostica A/S received an approval from the U.S. FDA for ImmuView S pneumoniae and L pneumophila Urinary Antigen Test. It is a rapid, lateral flow test indicated for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila antigens in urine samples. Such market trends are anticipated to strongly contribute to the market's growth prospects over the forecast period.
Increased Prevalence of Pneumonia & Concerns Associated with Pneumonia Mortality to Drive Market Growth
Significant increase in the prevalence of pneumonia across the globe is a major factor expected to propel the global market growth. Generally, pediatric and old-aged populations have an increased susceptibility to developing pneumonia. For instance, as per an article published by the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in 2019, on a global level, there are over 1,400 cases of pneumonia per 100,000. Also, it has the highest incidence in South Asia and West and Central Africa, with 2,500 cases and 1,620 cases per 100,000 children, respectively. Hence, these factors mentioned above are crucial growth drivers for the global market.
Predominantly, pneumonia is considered one of the most common causes of hospitalization among all infectious diseases. If the patient is found critical, the patient is hospitalized and further microbiological tests for pneumonia are done. For instance, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) estimates that about 1.0 million adults in the U.S. seek hospital care yearly due to pneumonia.
Furthermore, some poverty-related factors, such as malnutrition, lack of safe drinking water and sanitation, outdoor & indoor air pollution, and inadequate access to healthcare, contribute to pneumonia-associated mortality among children in developing nations. Thus, a steep increase in pneumonia-related mortality has raised concern among developing countries' governments to launch programs to increase awareness regarding pneumonia diagnosis to prevent deaths. Developed nations are more concerned regarding pneumonia diagnosis; thus, the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) released Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) guidelines. Such pneumonia testing guidelines for pneumonia diagnosis are expected to be taken by developing nations to increase awareness of these testing procedures. Hence, the abovementioned factors are prominent drivers for the global market growth to flourish over the projected timeframe.
Development of Advanced Multiplex PCR for Pneumonia Detection is Likely to Drive the Market
One of the distinct factors anticipated to drive the growth is technological advancements in pneumonia testing. The advanced multiplex PCR (mPCR) based platform for diagnosing pneumonia offers higher detection efficiency, thereby reducing cost and time. The DNA or RNA replication of very minute microorganisms also does not require live microorganisms, and are thus not affected by the prior usage of antibiotics. Therefore, manufacturers are now focusing on developing and launching advanced multiplex PCR products. For instance, in 2018, Curetis launched Unyvero System and LRT Cartridge in the U.S. The system uses powerful multiplex PCR technology to detect a wide variety of microorganisms, antibiotic resistance markers, or toxins from sample-to-answer within 4 to 5 hours.
Furthermore, many manufacturers are putting diligent efforts into strategic business activities, such as collaboration, mergers, and acquisitions, to penetrate new regions and gain a strong foothold in the global market. Therefore, incorporating such novel technology will firmly propel market expansion.
Consideration of Chest X-Ray as a Gold Standard for Pneumonia Diagnostics to Hinder Market Growth
One of the most critical factors restraining this market's growth is the widespread utilization of chest X-rays as an essential tool for pneumonia detection. Generally, a combination of clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory test is usually recommended for diagnosing pneumonia. However, chest X-rays are considered the first-line diagnostic test in all patients with suspected pneumonia. This eventually decreases the adoption of microbiological diagnostic tests for pneumonia. Furthermore, advancements in chest X-ray products to efficiently detect pneumonia could threaten the molecular diagnostic market. For instance, in June 2020, GE Healthcare launched Thoracic Care Suite, a new AI suite to detect chest X-ray abnormalities, including pneumonia indicative of COVID-19.
Moreover, a chest radiograph (chest X-ray) helps to differentiate pneumonia from other causes of acute respiratory symptoms, such as pulmonary infarction, pulmonary edema, tuberculosis, and pleural effusion, hindering the pneumonia testing market growth. The factors mentioned above are responsible for hindering the adoption of products, thereby restricting the overall market growth to a certain extent.
Reagents & Consumables to Experience High Demand owing to Wide Use in Pneumonia Testing
Based on product type, the global market is segmented into instruments and reagents & consumables. The reagents & consumables segment held a dominant market share in 2021. The strong market share can be attributed to the increase in research & development initiatives leading to new product launches, strong usage of these products for various testing procedures, and an increase in demand for microbial testing.
The instruments segment is expected to witness positive growth prospects due to increased adoption of technologically advanced instruments across the globe.
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Streptococcus-based Pneumonia Segment to Dominate through 2029 led by Rising Cases
Based on type, the global market is segmented into streptococcus-based, legionella-based, chlamydophila-based, viral pneumonia-based, mycoplasma pneumonia-based, and others. The streptococcus-based segment held a dominant pneumonia testing market share in 2021. Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the significant causes of Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). For instance, according to a published article by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 2022, streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for up to 15.0% of pneumonia cases in the U.S. and 27.0% globally.
The viral pneumonia-based segment is anticipated to hold the second leading position during the forecast period. The increasing number of viral pneumonia cases due to COVID-19 and the rising number of hospitalizations have led to strong demand for microbiological testing. The legionella-based segment held a substantial market share in 2021 due to rising cases and robust adoption of point-of-care diagnostic kits, leading the segment to grow at a significant CAGR. Also, the chlamydophila-based and mycoplasma pneumonia-based segments are estimated to grow at a lower CAGR as they are less common causes of pneumonia.
Hospitals & Clinics Segment to Witness Increased Testing due to Rise in Pneumonia-related Hospitalization
Based on end-user, the market is segmented into hospitals & clinics, diagnostic centers, and others. The hospitals & clinics segment dominated the market and is projected to witness growth throughout the forecast period. The expansion can be attributed to several hospitalizations due to pneumonia. For instance, according to an article published by BioMed Central Ltd in 2019, the hospitalization rate for bacterial pneumonia was 79.1 per 10,000 people in South Korea. Also, the rate was the highest in the age group of 0–14 years at 325.3, and it was 161.5 among the elderly patients. Furthermore, favorable reimbursement policy, raising awareness, and demand for pneumonia diagnosis are crucial reasons for the growth of the hospitals & clinics segment.
The diagnostic centers segment accounts for the second-largest market share in 2021. The increase in diagnostic centers carrying out diagnostic procedures, such as microbial testing from sputum, blood, and urine, specifically in developing countries is anticipated to contribute to the expansion of the diagnostic centers segment. The others segment is expected to witness positive growth due to rapid adoption of pneumonia testing across the globe.
North America Pneumonia Testing Market Size, 2021 (USD Million)
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Based on region, the global market is studied across North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa.
The market size in North America stood at USD 221.4 million in 2021, and the region is expected to account for a dominant share of the global market during the forecast period. North America dominates the global market due to a substantial number of pneumonia cases, rapid adoption of point-of-care technologies, and favorable reimbursement policies. Furthermore, the presence of major players in the U.S. and the launches of technologically advanced products are some of the reasons driving the growth of regional markets such as North America.
The European market is expected to be the second-largest market in 2021. The growth can be attributed to the increased number of hospitalizations and vital initiatives by the governments to raise awareness among people about pneumonia testing. For instance, according to the study published by BMC in January 2021, respiratory diseases in European countries are responsible for 15.0% of in-hospital deaths, with pneumonia being the second most important cause. Also, in terms of 7.0% of hospital admissions, pneumonia comprises 2.0% share. Thus, the increasing patient pool will likely favor the European market.
The Asia Pacific market is expected to grow remarkably in the forecast period. For instance, the rising geriatric population in Asia Pacific is effectively contributing to the prevalence of pneumonia since the aged population is more susceptible to pneumonia. Also, elderly individuals have higher hospitalization rates with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Latin America would witness growth due to increasing awareness in recent years. The unmet demand for pneumonia testing in Mexico and Brazil could provide lucrative opportunities for leading market’s key players. The Middle East & Africa holds a comparatively lesser share in the market. Still, it is expected to witness growth prospects due to rising awareness and improvement of government policies amongst the people of developing countries in these regions.
Leading Players such as Thermo Fisher Scientific and bioMérieux Strengthen Portfolio to Sustain Dominance
In terms of the competitive landscape, the global market has a fragmented nature due to the presence of various national and international players. However, strategies, such as product launches and focus on mergers and acquisitions, have been some critical factors helping key industry players boost market revenue. One of the key companies, bioMérieux SA, holds a top position due to its strong brand presence and technologically advanced product portfolio. For instance, the company’s vital products of BIOFIRE FILMARRAY Pneumonia plus Panel and BIOFIRE Respiratory 2.1 plus Panel have strengthened its position and increased its market revenue.
Also, players, such as Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and Abbott, hold a prominent position in the global market due to their robust product portfolio for rapid testing, coupled with a strong geographic reach. Other vital players, such as BD (Becton, Dickinson, and Company), Quidel Corporation, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., and Luminex Corporation (DiaSorin S.p.A.), also occupy prominent positions in the global market due to their product launches and strategic collaborations to expand their operations. Furthermore, emerging players, such as Meridian Bioscience, Inc. and OpGen, are slowly gaining a competitive advantage due to the adoption of advanced technologies and expansion of their production capabilities.
An Infographic Representation of Pneumonia Testing Market
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The pneumonia testing market research report provides a detailed analysis of the market. The global market is segmented by product type, type, end-user, and geography. The market analysis focuses on key aspects such as market dynamics, key industry developments - mergers, acquisitions, and partnerships, new product launches, technological advancements in testing of pneumonia, regulatory & reimbursement scenario, prevalence/incidence of pneumonia, major market players, and COVID-19 pandemic impact on the global market. Besides this, the market report includes insights into the market trends and highlights key industry dynamics. In addition to the aforementioned factors, the report encompasses numerous factors and market statistics that have contributed to the growth of the market in recent years.
Value (USD Million)
By Product Type
Fortune Business Insights says that the global market size was USD 557.1 million in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 912.5 million by 2029.
In 2021, North America stood at USD 221.4 million.
Growing at a CAGR of 6.0%, the market will exhibit steady growth in the forecast period (2022-2029).
The streptococcus-based segment is expected to be the leading segment in this market during the forecast period.
The increased prevalence of pneumonia, strong focus on the development of advanced diagnostic technologies, rise in various government and non-government organizations initiatives, and the adoption of rapid and point-of-care testing in the global market are driving the market growth.
bioMerieux SA and Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. are some of the major market players in the global market.
North America dominated the market in 2021.
New product launches, rising government initiatives to increase the adoption of diagnostics of pneumonia, and rise in cases of pneumonia across the globe surge the adoption of these products.
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