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The global veterinary vaccine adjuvants market size stood at USD 380.0 million in 2019 and is projected to reach USD 530.4 million by 2027, exhibiting a CAGR of 4.3% during the forecast period.
Vaccine adjuvants are microbial components comprising of chemicals or mammalian proteins that are added to a vaccine to increase the efficiency of that vaccine. From a chemical point of view, adjuvants are a highly heterogeneous group of compounds that share only one functional characteristic, that is to enhance immune responses. The most commonly used adjuvants include aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, oil emulsions, and purified quillaja saponin. Recently, there has been an upsurge in reducing vaccine-related adverse effects and inducing specific types of immunity, and this has led to the development of several novel adjuvants.
Adjuvants in research and commercial vaccines include aluminium salts (alum), liposomes, oil emulsions, saponins, microparticles, immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), non-ionic block copolymers, polysaccharides, cytokines, and an extensive variety of bacterial derivatives. The mechanisms of these varied compounds differ, as does their induction of cell-mediated and antibody responses. Factors impelling the selection of an adjuvant include animal species, vaccine antigen, specific pathogen, route of administration, and type of immunity required.
Growing technological advancements, increasing focus on long-lasting vaccines for existing and emerging zoonotic diseases, increasing pet healthcare insurance, and rising government expenditure on research and development of adjuvant vaccines are some of the factors responsible to promote the veterinary vaccine adjuvants market growth. However, adverse effects and high toxicity pertaining to veterinary vaccine adjuvants is likely to hinder the market growth.
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Novel Adjuvant Technological Advancements for Animal Vaccines to Foster Market Growth
Veterinary vaccines have been used for many years, and plays an important role in protecting animal welfare, animal health, food production, and public health. These vaccines are a cost-effective method to prevent animal disease, and improve food production. In addition, vaccines significantly reduce the need for antibiotics to treat companion animals and prevent transmission of zoonotic disease to human. Freund in 1973, introduced a combination of mineral oils and bacterial cell components (Freund’s complete adjuvant) for the improvement of vaccine immune responses. Though, many nations do not use Freund’s adjuvant in animals due to its reactivity and side effects. Alum and emulsions-based formulations have been successfully used for a long time in a wide variety of animal vaccines. However, with an advanced understanding of the immune system, several new adjuvants (Saponins, Liposomes, virosomes, particle-based and TRL ligand) have recently been developed for veterinary applications. A wide range of adjuvants has been successfully used in commercial vaccines for animals and several new technologies are currently in preclinical development.
Growing Awareness of Animal Health in Emerging Economies to Aid Market Growth
Governments across emerging economies such as India and China have commenced various promotional campaigns to promote the advantages of animal husbandry, animal farming, and animal vaccination. Livestock contributes up to 40% of the worldwide agricultural GDP 31, making animal health part of the foundation of economies globally. For example, the Indian government presently prioritizes livestock vaccination over the vaccination of dogs against rabies and centrally funds schemes against FMD, PPR, brucellosis, all while co-funding veterinary infrastructure together with regional governments. Besides, similar initiatives to improve awareness about animal health and control the spread of zoonotic diseases are being implemented in other developing countries. For instance, the Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (GDARD) in South Africa organized the World Veterinary Week celebrations in April 2016. In this program, GDARD provided free vaccination for pets in the Gauteng Province. Such awareness programs will aid in the expansion of the market and drive the demand for veterinary vaccine adjuvants in the forthcoming years.
Growing Incidence of Infectious Zoonotic Diseases is Promoting Market Growth
Zoonotic diseases such as animal flu, bird flu, cat scratch fever, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, Campylobacter infection, cryptosporidiosis to name a few, are the diseases transmitted from animals to human, or vice versa. Rendering to the data published by World Health Organization (WHO), the rural poor population represents 911 million people, of which 411 million are poor livestock-keepers and most of the people are from Sub-Saharan African region and South Asia. Close contact with animals is the foremost reason associated with the transmission of infectious zoonotic diseases. In addition to this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that zoonotic diseases are very common. It says about more than six out of every 10 known infectious diseases in humans are spread from animals, and three out of every four new or emerging infectious diseases in people are spread from animals. Consequently, for the treatment of the above-mentioned infectious zoonotic diseases, several types of vaccines are used. Thus, the growing incidences of zoonotic diseases are the prime factor responsible for the growing demand for veterinary vaccine adjuvants in the market.
Adverse Effects and High Toxicity of Adjuvants are expected to Hinder Market Growth
The adverse effects and high toxicity of veterinary vaccine adjuvants such as fever, uveitis, soreness, anorexia, and lethargy, are expected to restrain the growth of the market over the forecast period. Moreover, while doing the extensive non-clinical toxicological and safety research, side effects associated with veterinary vaccine adjuvants are not observed but may appear in post-marketing surveillance. Therefore, there is a need for planned and outlined post-marketing surveillance, which incurs additional cost to the adjuvant manufacturers. Furthermore, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommended a new rule in January 2002, making it mandatory for manufacturers to keep a record of the adverse effects of vaccine adjuvants and report them to the USDA. Hence, the rising concerns of the adverse effects associated with veterinary vaccine adjuvants are anticipated to hinder the market growth.
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Alum and Calcium Salts Segment Dominated Market
Based on type, this market is segmented into alum and calcium salts, oil emulsion adjuvants, liposomes and archaeosomes, nanoparticles and microparticles, and others. Alum and calcium salts segment holds the largest market share in 2019. Alum is the most commonly used adjuvant consisting of aluminum salts.
On the other hand, the emulsion adjuvant segment is projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. This market is mainly driven by factors such as the growing prevalence of infectious zoonotic diseases, coupled with an increase in livestock population and their associated diseases.
Research Application Segment to Lead Backed by Extensive Use of Adjuvants in Vaccines
Based on application, this market is segmented into research and commercial use. Among them, the research application held the largest share in 2019. Growth in this segment is propelled by factors such as ongoing research projects on new adjuvants, growing initiatives by government and companies, increased use of several vaccine adjuvants commercially, and the rising incidences of zoonotic diseases.
On the other hand, the commercial application segment is projected to witness robust growth over the forecast years. The segment growth is attributed to growing initiatives by government bodies and companies, and increased usage of many veterinary vaccine adjuvants commercially.
Intramuscular Segment to Account for Largest Market Share in 2019
Based on route of administration, this market is segmented into oral, subcutaneous, intramuscular, and others. Among these, the intramuscular segment accounted for the dominant share in 2019 owing to better immune specificity. The efficiency of vaccines depends on the route of administration. For instance, alum salts, which are the most widely used parenteral adjuvants, are ineffective when administered by the oral or nasal route.
On the other hand, others segment which includes intradermal route is expected to be the fastest-growing segment owing to longer absorption time and duration of action as compared to other routes, which upsurges the demand for vaccines administered through this route.
Livestock Animals Segment Dominated the Market in 2019
Based on the type of animals, this market has been segmented into livestock and companion animals. Among them, the livestock animals segment accounted for the largest share in 2019 owing to an increase in livestock population and their associated diseases, coupled with a high incidence of infectious zoonotic diseases.
On the other hand, the companion animal segment is projected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. Companion animals include dogs, cats, horses, and others. The market is driven majorly due to the growing number of pets and rapidly changing technology implications. Besides this, growing disposable income in the developing countries is anticipated to the growth of this segment in the near future.
North America Veterinary Vaccine Adjuvants Market Size, 2016-2027 (USD Million)
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Improved Veterinary Healthcare Infrastructure to Facilitate Growth in North America
Veterinary vaccine adjuvants market in North America was valued at USD 158.84 million in 2019 and is also expected to observe the highest growth during forecast period. Presence of well-established veterinary healthcare infrastructure is driving the market growth in the region. In the past few decades, there is increase in the prevalence of zoonotic diseases in the United States, due to an extensive range of modes of transmission that zoonotic diseases can employ. Furthermore, according to the estimates of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), each year, tens of thousands of US citizens are getting sick, due to harmful germs spread between animals and people. Considering the rising trends of zoonotic diseases in the United States, the related use of veterinary vaccine is also growing. Consequently, it is likely to boost the growth of this market over the forecast period.
Europe held the second largest share in the market. However, Asia Pacific is witnessing significant growth during the forecast period. This can be attributed to continuously improving veterinary healthcare facilities coupled with immunization programs managed by government bodies.
Croda International Plc, to Account for Significantly Large Market Share in Terms of Revenue
The global market for Veterinary Vaccine Adjuvants has been segmented into large, medium, and small industry players. Among this cluster, Croda been a key player in developing adjuvants since 1939. Besides, it is the only company to manufacture sterile adjuvants produced by an aseptic process.
Croda’s acquisitions and partnerships with other players of the market have helped achieve the dominant position. For instance, in January 2019, Croda International Plc. announced its acquisition of Brenntag Biosector (Biosector). Biosector has extraordinary industry experience as a vaccine adjuvant specialist, with its product portfolio comprising of innovative aluminum and saponin based adjuvants. With the help of this acquisition, the company strengthened its pharmaceutical offerings and have access to an industry renowned product portfolio of adjuvants. Hence, strategic partnerships and innovations in the veterinary vaccine’s adjuvants market are anticipated to boost the key player’s revenue in the coming years.
An Infographic Representation of Veterinary Vaccine Adjuvants Market
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The veterinary vaccine adjuvants market report provides a detailed analysis of the market and focuses on key aspects such as leading companies, product types, and leading modalities types. Besides this, the report offers insights into the market trends and highlights key industry developments. In addition to the aforementioned factors, the report encompasses several factors that have contributed to the growth of the market over recent years.
Value (USD million)
By Route of Administration
By Animal Type
Fortune Business Insights predicts that the global market size will reach USD 530.4 million by 2027.
In 2019, the market value stood at a value of USD 380.0 million.
Growing at a CAGR of 4.3%, the market will exhibit significant growth during the forecast period (2020-2027).
The alum and calcium salts segment is expected to be the leading segment in veterinary vaccine adjuvants market during the forecast period.
Growing technological advancements, increasing focus on long-lasting vaccines for existing and emerging zoonotic diseases are some of the factors driving the growth of this veterinary vaccine adjuvants market.
Croda International Plc., is the leading player in the global market.
North America dominated the market in 2019.
Acquisitions, partnerships, novel product launches, and geographic expansion are the key strategies adopted by market players.
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